Bodybuilding Supplement Ingredient Benefits, Definitions and other General Information  

Supplement Ingredients List

M4 Nutrition is a company that is known for their Full Disclosure labels.  What is not to love about a company like that?  More supplement manufactures should follow suit so the nutrition industry wouldn’t get such a bad wrap!!  Since so many Discount Sport Nutrition customers have questions about certain ingredients found in different supplement products, we wanted to start a list.  What better way to start a list than to detail out many ingredients that M4 Nutrition puts in their products!  

iBro Full Disclosure Labels

Since M4 is all about full disclosure labels it is easy for us to dive into exactly what is in their bodybuilding, weight loss and pre-workout sport nutrition products.  If you have a question regarding an ingredient that you would like information on, just let us know and we will add it here to what we are calling The Discount Sport Nutrition Supplement Ingredient List!  Thanks again to M4 Nutrition for not being one of “those” companies that hides ingredients in their products.  We love that what you see is what you get with M4. 
   

M4 Nutrition Supplement Product List DSN


Agmatine Sulfate – Agmatine Sulfate, is known as the best form of arginine on the market today. Agmatine Sulfate, has the ability to give explosive increases in Nitric Oxide synthesis. Increased nitric oxide results in vasodilation, which increases blood flow, nutrient delivery to skeletal muscle, and oxygen transport. Increased blood for ultimate muscle pumps. It acts as a neurotransmitter, a precursor to the polyamines and has many other key biological functions within the body.

Boron Citrate – Boron Citrate, has many health benefits in additon to increasing natural testosterone levels. Boron Citrate also is used for building stronger bones, aids in muscle building, enhancing thinking skills and muscle coordination.  Boron seems to affect the way the body handles other minerals such as magnesiumand phosphorus. It also seems to increase estrogen levels in older (post-menopausal) women and healthy men. Estrogen is thought to be helpful in maintaining healthy bones and mental function. Boric acid, a common form of boron, can kill yeast that cause vaginal infections.  Boron is a mineral that is found in food and the environment. People take boron supplements as medicine.  Boron is used for building strong bones, treating osteoarthritis, as an aid for building muscles and increasing testosterone levels, and for improving thinking skills and muscle coordination. Women sometimes use capsules containing boric acid, the most common form of boron, inside the vagina to treat yeast infections. People also apply boric acid to the skin as an astringent or to prevent infection; or use it as an eye wash. Boron was used as a food preservative between 1870 and 1920, and during World Wars I and II.  Boron Citrate may be effective for athletic performance. Taking boron by mouth might improve body mass, muscle mass, or testosterone levels in male bodybuilders.  Boron Citrate may be effective in increasing testosterone.  Boron Citrate may be effective at improving thinking and coordination.  Other names for Boron Citrate are Acide Borique, Anhydride Borique, Atomic number 5, B (chemical symbol), B (symbole chimique), Borate, Borate de Sodium, Borates, Bore, Boric Acid, Boric Anhydride, Boric Tartrate, Boro, Numéro Atomique 5, Sodium Borate.

DIM (Diindolymethane) – Diindolylmethane (DIM) reduces the levels of harmful estrogen metabolites, which is beneficial because they are associated with an increased risk for obesity, breast cancer and uterine cancer. Additional problems associated with too many harmful estrogen metabolites include moodiness and breast pain in women and loss of sex drive in men.

Laxosterone (5 alpha hydroxy laxogenin) – 5a-Hydroxy Laxogenin was discovered in 1996 and shown to have an anabolic/androgenic ratio similar Anavar, but without the side effects of liver toxicity or testing positive for steroidal therapy. Athletes claim to have seen strength increases in 3-5 days, and muscle mass increases in 3-4 weeks.  Diindolylmethane / DIM might act like estrogen in the body.  Diindolylmethane / DIM is formed in the body from plant substances contained in “cruciferous” vegetables such as cabbage, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, and broccoli. Scientists think these vegetables may help to protect the body against cancer because they contain diindolylmethane and a related chemical called indole-3-carbinol.  Other names for DIM (Diindolymethane) are Diindolymetano, Diidolylméthane, DIM, 3,3'-Diindolylmethane.

Beta Alanine - Beta-alanine is a non-essential amino acid. Non-essential amino acids can be made by the body, so they don’t have to be provided by food. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.  Beta-alanine is used for improving athletic performance and exercise capacity, building lean muscle mass, and improving physical functioning in the elderly. Beta-alanine works is an amino acid. In the body it is converted to other chemicals that can affect muscle. For physical performance, research shows that taking beta-alanine modestly improves some measures of physical performance, especially during high-intensity exercise and strength training. Beta-alanine supplements might also improve physical performance and delay muscle fatigue in older adults. Researchers are hopeful that these benefits might lower fall risk, but it’s too early to know that for sure. Other research shows that a specific product containing beta-alanine, creatine monohydrate, arginine, alpha-ketoisocaproate, and leucine (NO-Shotgun) might increase fat-free mass and strength in men participating in resistance training. Other names for Beta-Alanine: 3-aminopropanoic acid, 3-aminopropionic Acid, Acide 3-aminopropanoïque, Acide 3-aminopropionique, Acide Aminé Non Essentiel, Acide Bêta-Aminé, b-Ala, B-alanine, B-aminopropionic Acid, Beta-alanina, Bêta-Alanine, Beta-alanine Ethyl Ester, Beta-amino Acid, Non-essential Amino Acid.

L-Taurine - Taurine is an amino sulfonic acid, but it is often referred to as an amino acid, a chemical that is a required building block of protein. Taurine is found in large amounts in the brain, retina, heart, and blood cells called platelets. The best food sources are meat and fish.  You may see taurine referred to as “a conditional amino acid,” to distinguish it from “an essential amino acid.” A “conditional amino acid” can be manufactured by the body, but an “essential amino acid” cannot be made by the body and must be provided by the diet. People who, for one reason or another, cannot make taurine, must get all the taurine they need from their diet or supplements. For example, supplementation is necessary in infants who are not breastfed because their ability to make taurine is not yet developed and cow's milk does not provide enough taurine. So taurine is often added to infant formulas. People who are being tube-fed often need taurine as well, so it is added to the nutritional products that they use. Excess taurine is excreted by the kidneys.  Some people take taurine supplements as medicine to treat congestive heart failure(CHF), high blood pressure, liver disease (hepatitis), high cholesterol(hypercholesterolemia), and cystic fibrosis. Other uses include seizure disorders (epilepsy), autism, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), eye problems (disorders of the retina), diabetes, and alcoholism. It is also used to improve mental performance and as an antioxidant. Antioxidants protect cells of the body from damage that results from certain chemical reactions involving oxygen (oxidation).  How does Taurine work?  Well researchers aren’t exactly sure why taurine seems to help congestive heart failure (CHF). There is some evidence that it improves the function of the left ventricle, one of the chambers of the heart. Taurine might also improve heart failure because it seems to lower blood pressure and calm the sympathetic nervous system, which is often too active in people with high blood pressure and CHF. The sympathetic nervous system is the part of the nervous system that responds to stress.  Other names for Taurine: 2-Aminoethylsulfonic Acid, 2-Aminoethane Sulfonic Acid, Acide Aminoéthylsulfonique, Acide Kétoisocaproïque de Taurine, Acid Aminoethanesulfonate, Aminoethanesulfonate, Aminoéthylsulfonique, Éthyl Ester de Taurine, L-Taurine, Taurina, Taurine Ethyl Ester, Taurine Ketoisocaproic Acid.

Betaine Anhydrous - Betaine anhydrous is a chemical that occurs naturally in the body, and can also be found in foods such as beets, spinach, cereals, seafood, and wine.  Betaine anhydrous is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of high urine levels of a chemical called homocysteine (homocystinuria) in people with certain inherited disorders. High homocysteine levels are associated with heart disease, weak bones (osteoporosis), skeletal problems, and eye lens problems.  Betaine anhydrous is also used for treating high blood homocysteine levels, liverdisease, depression, osteoarthritis, congestive heart failure (CHF), and obesity; for boosting the immune system; and for improving athletic performance. It is also used for preventing noncancerous tumors in the colon (colorectal adenomas).  Topically, betaine anhydrous is used as an ingredient in toothpastes to reduce the symptoms of dry mouth.  A form of betaine called betaine anhydrous helps in the metabolism of homocysteine, a chemical involved in the normal function of many different parts of the body, including blood, bones, eyes, heart, nerves, and the brain. Betaine anhydrous prevents the buildup of homocysteine seen in people who have problems with its metabolism from birth.  Other names for Betaine Anhydrous 2(N,N,N-trimethyl)ammonium-acetate, Betaína Anhidra, Bétaïne Anhydre, Betaine Anhydrous, Bétaïne de Glycine, Bétaïne de Glycocoll, Cystadane, Glycine Betaine, Glycocoll Betaine, Glycylbetaine, Lycine, Oxyneurine, TMG, Trimethyl Glycine, Trimethylbetaine, Trimethylglycine, Trimethylglycine Anhydre, Trimethylglycine Anhydrous.

HydroMax (Glycerol Powder) - Glycerol is a naturally occurring chemical. Many people use Glycerol for help with weight loss when taken by mouth.  Glycerol is also used for improving expertise performance.  People do use it as a medicine. Some uses and dosage forms have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Glycerol is taken by mouth for weight loss, improving exercise performance, helping the body replace water lost during diarrhea and vomiting, and reducing pressure inside the eye in people with glaucoma. Athletes also use glycerol to keep from becoming dehydrated. Healthcare providers sometimes give glycerol intravenously (by IV) to reduce pressure inside the brain in various conditions including stroke, meningitis, encephalitis, Reye's syndrome, pseudotumor cerebri, central nervous system (CNS) trauma, and CNS tumors; for reducing brain volume for neurosurgical procedures; and for treating fainting on standing due to poor blood flow to the brain (postural syncope). Some people apply glycerol to the skin as a moisturizer.Eye doctors sometimes put a solution that contains glycerol in the eye to reduce fluid in the cornea before an eye exam.Rectally, glycerol is used as a laxative.  Other names for Glycerol; 1,2,3-propanetriol, Alcool Glycériné, Glicerol, Glucerite, Glycerin, Glycerine, Glycérine, Glycérine Végétale, Glycerol Monostearate, Glycérol, Glycerolum, Glyceryl Alcohol, Monostéarate de Glycérol, Vegetable Glycerin. Glycerol is known to attract water into the gut, softening stools and relieving constipation.

Choline Bitartrate - Choline is similar to the B vitamins. It can be made in the liver. It is also found in foods such as liver, muscle meats, fish, nuts, beans, peas, spinach, wheat germ, and eggs. Athletes use it for bodybuilding and delaying fatigue in endurance sports. Choline is used for liver disease, including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. It is also used for depression, memory loss, Alzheimer's disease and dementia, Huntington's chorea, Tourette's disease, a brain disorder called cerebellar ataxia, certain types of seizures, and a mental condition called schizophrenia.
Choline is taken by pregnant women to prevent neural tube defects in their babies and it is used as a supplement in infant formulas. Other uses include preventing cancer, lowering cholesterol, and controlling asthma. Choline Bitartrate may help Athletic performance by taking choline by mouth could improve athletic performance or lessen fatigue during exercise.  Choline is similar to a B vitamin. It is used in many chemical reactions in the body. Choline seems to be an important in the nervous system. In asthma, choline might help decrease swelling and inflammation.  Other names for Choline Bitartrate: Bitartre de Choline, Chlorure de Choline, Choline Bitartrate, Choline Chloride, Choline Citrate, Citrate de Choline, Colina, Facteur Lipotropique, Hydroxyde de Triméthylammonium (bêta-hydroxyéthyl), Intrachol, L-Choline, Lipotropic Factor, Methylated Phosphatidylethanolamine, Trimethylethanolamine, Triméthyléthanolamine, (beta-hydroxyethyl) Trimethylammonium hydroxide.

Glycine Propionyl-L-Carnitine HCL - Propionyl-L-carnitine is an amino acid that is naturally produced in the body. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine are also amino acids, and they are chemically related to propionyl-L-carnitine. In fact, the body can convert L-carnitine to propionyl-L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine. But, no one knows whether the benefits of carnitines are interchangeable. Until more is known, don’t substitute one form of carnitine for another. Propionyl-L-carnitine is used for treating leg pain (intermittent claudication) due to poor blood circulation (peripheral vascular disease, PVD). PVD is often caused by diabetesor “hardening of the arteries” (atherosclerosis). Propionyl-L-carnitine is also used to treat congestive heart failure (CHF). Men with sexual performance problems (erectile dysfunction, ED) due to diabetes or poor circulation sometimes use propionyl-L-carnitine along with prescription medications. Older men who have symptoms of low testosterone levels sometimes use propionyl-L-carnitine in combination with acetyl-L-carnitine. The propionyl-L-carnitine/acetyl-L-carnitine combination is also used to treat chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Healthcare providers give propionyl-L-carnitine intravenously (by IV) for treating PVD and intermittent claudication; to improve wound healing in people with PVD; and to treat heart disease, including congestive heart failure, and chest pain (angina).  Propionyl-L-carnitine helps the body produce energy. It is important for heart function, muscle movement, and many other body processes. It also seems to help increase circulation.   Glycine Propionyl-L-Carnitine HCL could be effective for poor circulation (peripheral vascular disease) that causes leg pain while walking (intermittent claudication). Propionyl-L-carnitine taken by mouth or given by IV seems to help people with severe leg pain walk farther than they otherwise could. But propionyl-L-carnitine doesn't seem to help milder peripheral vascular disease.  Glycine Propionyl-L-Carnitine HCL could be effective for treating symptoms of “male menopause,” low levels of testosterone due to aging. Taking propionyl-L-carnitine by mouth in combination with acetyl-L-carnitine for six months seems to improve sexual performance, depression, and fatigue in older men. Taking this combination seems to work about as well as taking testosterone.  Glycine Propionyl-L-Carnitine HCL could be effective for sexual performance problems (erectile dysfunction, ED) in men with diabetes. Taking propionyl-L-carnitine along with sildenafil (Viagra) may work better than taking sildenafil alone.  Glycine Propionyl-L-Carnitine HCL could be effective with an increase in fibrous tissue in the penis (Peyronie's disease). The combination of propionyl-L-carnitine and injection of a medication called verapamil seems to improve sexual performance, slow disease progression, and reduce the need for surgery.  Glycine Propionyl-L-Carnitine HCL other names are: Glycine Propionyl-L-Carnitine HCl, Glycine Propionyl-L-Carnitine Hydrochloride, L-carnitine Propionyl, LPC, PLC, Propionil-L-Carnitina, Propionylcarnitine.


Caffeine Anhydrous - Caffeine is a chemical found in coffee, tea, cola, guarana, mate, and other products.  Caffeine is also used for weight loss and type 2 diabetes. Very high doses are used, often in combination with ephedrine, as an alternative to illegal stimulants.  Caffeine is one of the most commonly used stimulants among athletes. Taking caffeine, within limits, is allowed by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). Urine concentrations over 15 mcg/mL are prohibited. It takes most people about 8 cups of coffee providing 100 mg/cup to reach this urine concentration.  Caffeine is most commonly used to improve mental alertness, but it has many other uses. Caffeine is used by mouth or rectally in combination with painkillers (such as aspirin and acetaminophen) and a chemical called ergotamine for treating migraineheadaches. It is also used with painkillers for simple headaches and preventing and treating headaches after epidural anesthesia. Some people use caffeine for asthma, gallbladder disease, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), shortness of breath in newborns, and low blood pressure. Caffeine works by stimulating the central nervous system (CNS), heart, muscles, and the centers that control blood pressure. Caffeine can raise blood pressure, but might not have this effect in people who use it all the time. Caffeine can also act like a “water pill” that increases urine flow. But again, it may not have this effect in people who use caffeine regularly. Also, drinking caffeine during moderate exercise is not likely to cause dehydration.  Caffeine Anhydrous can be effective for mental alertness. Research suggests that drinking caffeinated beverages throughout the day keeps the mind alert. Combining caffeine with glucose as an “energy drink” seems to improve mental performance better than either caffeine or glucose alone.  Caffeine Anhydrous can be effective for athletic performance. Taking caffeine seems to increase physical strength and endurance and might delay exhaustion. It might also reduce feelings of exertion and improve performance during activities such as cycling, running, playing soccer, and golfing. However, caffeine does not seem to improve performance during short-term, high-intensity exercise such as sprinting and lifting.  Other names for Caffeine Anhydrous are 1,3,7-Trimethyl-1H-purine- 2,6(3H,7H)-dione, 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine, 1,3,7-triméthylxanthine, 3,7-Dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione, Anhydrous Caffeine, Cafeina, Caféine, Caféine Anhydre, Caféine Benzodate de Sodium, Caffeine Sodium Benzoate, Caffeine Anhydrous, Caffeine Citrate, Caffeinum, Citrate de Caféine, Citrated Caffeine, Methylxanthine, Méthylxanthine, Trimethylxanthine, Triméthylxanthine.

Alpha GPC - Alpha Glycerol Phosphoryl Choline (Alpha-GPC) is a chemical released when a fatty acid found in soy and other plants breaks down. In the United States alpha-GPC is only available as a dietary supplement, mostly in products promoted to improve memory.  In Europe alpha-GPC is a prescription medication for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. It is available in two forms; one is taken by mouth, and the other is given as a shot.  Alpha-GPC seems to increase a chemical in the brain called acetylcholine. This brainchemical is important for memory and learning functions.  Other uses for alpha-GPC include treatment of various kinds of dementia, stroke, and “mini-stroke” (transient ischemic attack, TIA). Alpha-GPC is also used for improving memory, thinking skills, and learning.  Other names for Alpha GPC are Alfa-GPC, Alpha Glycerol Phosphoryl Choline, Alpha-Glyceryl Phosphoryl Choline, Alpha-Glyceryl Phosphatidylcholine, Alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, Choline alphoscerate, Glycerophosphorylcholine, Glycérophosphorylcholine, GPC, GroPCho, L-A-Glyceryl Phosphorylcholine, L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine.

CoQ10 - Coenzyme Q-10 (CoQ-10) is a vitamin-like substance found throughout the body, but especially in the heart, liver, kidney, and pancreas. It is eaten in small amounts in meats and seafood. Coenzyme Q-10 can also be made in a laboratory. It is used as medicine.  Many people use coenzyme Q-10 for treating heart and blood vessel conditions such as congestive heart failure (CHF), chest pain (angina), high blood pressure, and heart problems linked to certain cancer drugs. It is also used for diabetes, gum disease (both taken by mouth and applied directly to the gums), breast cancer, Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, muscular dystrophy, increasing exercise tolerance, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and Lyme disease. Some people think coenzyme Q-10 will treat hair loss related to taking warfarin (Coumadin), a medication used to slow blood clotting.  Some people also think coenzyme Q-10 might help increase energy. This is because coenzyme Q-10 has a role in producing ATP, a molecule in body cells that functions like a rechargeable battery in the transfer of energy. Coenzyme Q-10 been tried for treating inherited or acquired disorders that limit energy production in the cells of the body (mitochondrial disorders), and for improving exercise performance. Some people have also used coenzyme Q-10 for strengthening the immune systems of people with HIV/AIDS, male infertility, migraine headache, and counteracting muscle pain sometimes caused by a group of cholesterol-lowering medications called “statins.”   Coenzyme Q-10 has even been tried for increasing life span. This idea got started because coenzyme Q-10 levels are highest in the first 20 years of life. By age 80, coenzyme-Q10 levels can be lower than they were at birth. Some people thought that restoring high levels of coenzyme-Q10 late in life might cause people to live longer. The idea works in bacteria, but not in lab rats. More research is needed to see if this works in people.  It’s not only time that uses up the body’s store of coenzyme Q-10. Smoking does, too. Coenzyme Q-10 was first identified in 1957. The “Q-10” refers to the chemical make-up of the substance. These days coenzyme Q-10 is used by millions of people in Japan for heart disease, especially congestive heart failure. Coenzyme Q-10 is also used extensively in Europe and Russia. Most of the coenzyme Q-10 used in the US and Canada is supplied by Japanese companies. Coenzyme Q-10 is manufactured by fermenting beets and sugar cane with special strains of yeast.  Coenzyme Q-10 is an important vitamin-like substance required for the proper function of many organs and chemical reactions in the body. It helps provide energy to cells. Coenzyme Q-10 also seems to have antioxidant activity. People with certain diseases, such as congestive heart failure, high blood pressure, periodontal disease, Parkinson’s disease, certain muscular diseases, and AIDS, might have lower levels of coenzyme Q-10.  Other names for CoQ10 are Co Q10, Co Q-10, Coenzima Q-10, Co-Enzyme 10, Coenzyme Q 10, Coenzyme Q10, Co-Enzyme Q10, Co-Enzyme Q-10, Co-Q 10, CoQ10, Co-Q10, CoQ-10, Ubidcarenone, Ubidécarénone, Ubiquinone-10.

N-Methyl Tyramine HCL - N-Methyl Tyramine HCL is also known as Bitter Orange.  Bitter orange has many chemicals that affect the nervous system. The concentration and effect of these chemicals can change depending on the part of the plant and the method used for preparation. These chemicals can squeeze blood vessels, increase blood pressure, and cause the heart to beat faster.  Bitter Orange can be effective for weight loss. Some research suggests that a combination of bitter orange, caffeine, and St. John’s wort might help for weight reduction when used with a low calorie diet and exercise. Bitter orange is a plant. The peel, flower, leaf, fruit, and fruit juice are used to make medicine. Bitter orange oil is made from the peel.  Bitter orange peel is also used to improve appetite, and, in surprising contrast, it is also used for weight loss. Other uses for the fruit and peel are upset stomach, nasal congestion, and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Bitter orange is frequently used in “ephedra-free” products since the FDA banned ephedra in 2004 for serious side effects on the heart. Bitter orange and caffeine, a frequent combination in weight loss and bodybuilding products, can cause high blood pressure and increased heart rate in healthy adults with otherwise normal blood pressure.  Other names for N-Methyl Tyramine HCL (Bitter Orange) are Aurantii Fructus, Aurantii fructus immaturus, Aurantii pericarpium, Aurantium, Bigarade, Bitter Orange Flower, Bitter Orange Peel, Chao Zhi Ke, Chisil, Citrus amara, Citrus aurantium, Citrus Aurantium Fruit, Citrus bigarradia, Citrus vulgaris, Extrait de Zeste d’Orange, Fleur d’Orange Amère, Flos Citri Auranti, Fructus Aurantii, Fructus Aurantii Immaturus, Green Orange, Kijitsu, Methyl-Synephrine, Methyl-Synephrine HCl, Méthyl-Synéphrine HCl, Methyl Synephrine, N-Methyltyramine, Naranja Amarga, Neroli Oil, Norsynephrine, Octopamine, Octopamine HCl, Orange Amère, Orange de Séville, Orange Peel Extract, Orange Verte, Seville Orange, Shangzhou Zhiqiao, Sour Orange, Synephrine, Synéphrine, Synephrine HCl, Synéphrine HCl, Synephrine Hydrochloride, Zeste d’Orange Amère, Zhi Ke, Zhi Qiao, Zhi Shi.

Theacrine (as TeaCrine) - Theacrine is a naturally occurring chemical that is similar to caffeine. It is found in different types of tea and coffee, as well as in the seeds of the Herrania and Theocrama plant species. It is also found in the tea plant Camellia assamica var. kucha, which has been used traditionally to prolong life and cure the common cold. Theacrine seems to affect the brain similar to caffeine. Like caffeine, theacrine stimulates the central nervous system at higher doses and decreases central nervous system activity at lower doses. But unlike caffeine, theacrine does not seem to affect blood pressure. Theacrine might also lessen liver damage caused by stress and reduce pain and swelling. Theacrine (as TeaCrine) can be effective for mental performance. Early research suggests that taking a single dose of a specific theacrine product (TeaCrine; Compound Solutions, Inc.) might improve concentration in healthy people. Taking the same product daily for 7 days might improve some measurements of concentration in some people. Theacrine (as TeaCrine) may be effective for physical performance. Early research suggests that taking a single dose of a specific theacrine product (TeaCrine; Compound Solutions, Inc. ) increases energy and reduces fatigue in healthy people. Taking this same product for 7 days might also improve some energy and fatigue measurements in some people. Theacrine (as TeaCrine) may also be effective for general fatigue.  Other names for Theacrine (as TeaCrine) are 1,3,7,9-Tetramethylpurine-2,6,8-trione, 1,3,7,9-Tetramethyluric Acid, Tetramethyluric Acid.

Higenamine HCL - Higenamine is a chemical found in several plants including aconite, Annona squamosa, Nandina domestica (sacred bamboo), and others.  In supplements, higenamine is now showing up in products promoted as a pre-workoutsupplement for improving athletic performance. There is also interest in using higenamine for weight loss, cough, asthma, heart failure, and erectile dysfunction.  Higenamine works like a stimulant. In some parts of the body it causes tissues to relax. In other parts of the body, such as the heart, it causes tissue to contract. It seems to increase heart contractions and speed up the heart rate. Higenamine HCL may be effective for weight loss, athletic performance and erectile dysfunction.  Higenamine HCL other names are 1-[(4-Hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-6,7-diol; 1-(p-hydroxybenzyl)-6,7-Dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinolin; 1(S)-Norcoclaurine; dl-Demethylcoclaurine; DMC; Higénamine; Higenamine Hydrobromide; Higenamine Hydrochloride; Higenamine Oxalate; Higenamine Tartrate; Norcoclaurine; O-Demethylcoclaurine.

Synephrine HCL - Synephrine HCL is also known as Bitter Orange.  Bitter orange has many chemicals that affect the nervous system. The concentration and effect of these chemicals can change depending on the part of the plant and the method used for preparation. These chemicals can squeeze blood vessels, increase blood pressure, and cause the heart to beat faster.  Bitter Orange can be effective for weight loss. Some research suggests that a combination of bitter orange, caffeine, and St. John’s wort might help for weight reduction when used with a low calorie diet and exercise. Bitter orange is a plant. The peel, flower, leaf, fruit, and fruit juice are used to make medicine. Bitter orange oil is made from the peel.  Bitter orange peel is also used to improve appetite, and, in surprising contrast, it is also used for weight loss. Other uses for the fruit and peel are upset stomach, nasal congestion, and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Bitter orange is frequently used in “ephedra-free” products since the FDA banned ephedra in 2004 for serious side effects on the heart. Bitter orange and caffeine, a frequent combination in weight loss and bodybuilding products, can cause high blood pressure and increased heart rate in healthy adults with otherwise normal blood pressure.  Other names for Synephrine HCL (Bitter Orange) are Aurantii Fructus, Aurantii fructus immaturus, Aurantii pericarpium, Aurantium, Bigarade, Bitter Orange Flower, Bitter Orange Peel, Chao Zhi Ke, Chisil, Citrus amara, Citrus aurantium, Citrus Aurantium Fruit, Citrus bigarradia, Citrus vulgaris, Extrait de Zeste d’Orange, Fleur d’Orange Amère, Flos Citri Auranti, Fructus Aurantii, Fructus Aurantii Immaturus, Green Orange, Kijitsu, Methyl-Synephrine, Methyl-Synephrine HCl, Méthyl-Synéphrine HCl, Methyl Synephrine, N-Methyltyramine, Naranja Amarga, Neroli Oil, Norsynephrine, Octopamine, Octopamine HCl, Orange Amère, Orange de Séville, Orange Peel Extract, Orange Verte, Seville Orange, Shangzhou Zhiqiao, Sour Orange, Synephrine, Synéphrine, Synephrine HCl, Synéphrine HCl, Synephrine Hydrochloride, Zeste d’Orange Amère, Zhi Ke, Zhi Qiao, Zhi Shi.

Rauwolfia Vomitoria extract - Rauwolfia is a Indian snakeroot is a plant. The root is used to make medicine. Indian snakeroot is used for mild high blood pressure, nervousness, trouble sleeping(insomnia), and mental disorders such as agitated psychosis and insanity. Indian snakeroot is also used for snake and reptile bites, fever, constipation, feverish intestinal diseases, liver ailments, achy joints (rheumatism), fluid retention (edema), epilepsy, and as a tonic for general debilities.  One of the chemicals in Indian snakeroot is the same as a prescription drug called reserpine. Reserpine is used to treat mild to moderate hypertension, schizophrenia, and some symptoms of poor circulation.  Indian snakeroot contains chemicals such as reserpine that decrease heart rate and blood pressure.  Other names for Rauwolfia are Ajmaline, Arbre aux Serpents, Arbre de Serpents, Bois de Couleuvre, Chandrika, Chota-Chand, Covanamilpori, Dhanburua, Pagla-Ka-Dawa, Ophioxylon serpentinum, Patalagandhi, Racine de Couleuvre, Racine de Serpent, Rauwolfia, Rauwolfae Radix, Rauwolfia Serpentina, Serpiria, Rauwolfiawurzel, Rauvolfia serpentina, Sarpagandha, Sarpgandha, Serpentaire de l’Inde, Serpentine, Serpentine-Wood, Serpiria, She Gen Mu.

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** Since we are not Doctors, Researchers, Scientists, etc., we do not guarantee what is displayed on this page is accurate.  You are encouraged to do further research on each of these ingredients and discuss with your Doctor before using any of these ingredients or products on this site.  The material appearing on SportSupplements.com is for educational use only.  It should not be used s a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.  Use of this website constitutes acceptance of the SportSupplements.com Terms of Use, Privacy Policy, Security Policy, etc.


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